How a theory of perception was consolidated

  • 2018

INNOVATION COURSE Unit 1: Science Learning Object 5: Geometry

Geometry as a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of the properties of figures in the plane, including dotted lines, has facilitated the location in space. Its origins date back to the solution of specific problems related to measures. It has its practical application in applied physics, mechanics, architecture, geography, cartography, astronomy, nautical, topography, ballistics etc. And it is useful in the preparation of designs and even in the elaboration of crafts.

Gestalt psychology explains how the human brain organizes the elements it perceives. The principles that explain how that organization is configured were taken by various disciplines such as communication, architecture, sociology, ecology, and marketing. The phrase of one of the researchers synthesizes the meaning of the laws of perception: the whole is different from the sum of its parts. We perceive totalities where, depending on the context, the parties lose their qualities.

The mind configures, through the gestalt principles, the elements that reach it through the sense organs (attention) of the sensory channels (perception) or the channels of intuition, emotion and resolution (memory). In the experience that the individual has in their interaction with the environment, this configuration has a primary character over the elements that make it up, and the sum of the latter alone could not, therefore, alone generate the Understanding of mental functioning.


  • Understand perception from the gestalt model.
  • Establish relationships between perception and visualization.
  • Establish differences between graphic design and visual design.


That the group perceives the brightness of the Triad in unison, which dims the light of the soul and turns off the light of the form in the form. The Everything macroc smico es lo May the group perceive the All and then think no more of "your soul and my soul."

Law of the figure and background : the perception is made in the form of cuts, we perceive areas in which we focus attention. We perceive areas that we call the figure and surrounding areas that remain in a plane of lesser hierarchy than what we call the bottom.

Law of the organization: the elements are organized in figures as symmetrical, regular and stable as possible. This includes the sense of perspective, volume and depth, since the brain prefers integrated, complete and stable forms.

INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY: perceiving the infinite

Dr. Daniel Pierce is a talented neuropsychiatrist with schizophrenia, Professor at the University of Chicago who additionally works as a consultant for the FBI in complex cases. Dr. Pierce was recruited by a former student of his, Kate Moretti, with whom he works closely. Sometimes they help Doctor Pierce his assistant, Max Lewicki and one of his hallucinations, Natalie Vincent, who is also her best friend. Perception is an American series of 2012. The episodes generally begin with a scene from Doctor Pierce giving a class to his students about some aspect of the human mind, which will later be relevant in the plot of the episode. Symmetrically, they end up with another scene of Doctor Pierce giving a class in which he makes a final assessment of the paradoxes of human perception related to the plot of the chapter.

Thanos is a Titan from the moon of Saturn, which is inhabited by the Eternal. During his youth, Thanos was not interested in death until the same entity began to manipulate him from a young age. After his crimes against his own on Titan, he fled the planet looking for a love that corresponded to fill the void that girl (Death) left in his heart. He joined some space pirates refusing to kill, until his captain got tired of that decision and beat Thanos so much that he woke up his killer instinct. Thanos decided to destroy all the stars in the sky, for which he gathered the six power gems, to create a great gem that would allow him to achieve his goal. The gems have placed them in his left glove to form the Infinity Gauntlet. A wounded Silver Surfer arrives in a surprise way to Doctor Strange's home to warn him that Death has returned from the realm of the dead to Thanos to entrust him with the mission of destroying half of the conscious population of the universe and that he now possesses the Gems of Infinity, making him the most powerful being in the universe. Thanos is a Marvel Comics character and supervillain. Its name is partly a play on words that refers to the Greek term Thanatos, which means death, but mainly it is a deformation of the name of the god of non-violent death, Thanatos.

  • After watching some episodes of the series, answer the following questions. What is the importance of perception in cognition? What is the relationship of instinct, intellect and intuition with cognition? How could we merge instinct with intuition? How do each of the gems relate to the sense organs and the fingers?

The gems of the infinite are seven singularities of the Universe. Each of the gems gives you total control of each of the fundamental aspects of the multiverse: Time, Space, Mind, Soul, Reality and Power.

ACTIVITY ONE: perception

Perception is the way in which the brain feels sensory stimuli that it receives through the senses, to form a conscious impression of the physical reality of its surroundings. It also describes the mental processes through which a person selects, organizes and interprets information from stimuli, thoughts and feelings, from their previous experience, in a logical or meaningful way. Perception, together with attention and memory make up the process of cognition.

Light, for example, encodes information on the distribution of matter-energy in space-time, allowing a representation of objects in space, their movement and the emission of light energy. In turn, the sound encodes the mechanical activity in the environment through the vibrations of the air molecules that transmit those that occur on the surfaces of the objects when moving, bumping, rubbing, breaking, etc. Smell and taste inform the chemical nature of objects, these may be other plants and animals of interest as potential prey (food), predators or couples. Smell captures the particles that are released and dissolved in the air, capturing information at a distance, while taste requires that substances enter the mouth, dissolve in saliva and come into contact with the tongue. The sense of touch is a haptic system, since it involves the traditional tactile sensations of pressure, temperature and pain, all this through various receptive corpuscles inserted in the skin.

One of the fundamental principles of perception for gestaltists is that of Pregnance or, better yet, the principle of good form, which affirms the tendency of perceptual experience to adopt the simplest possible forms. Among other principles are:

Closing principle: closed and finished forms are more visually stable, which makes us tend to close and complete the perceived forms with imagination, looking for the best possible organization.

Contrast principle: the relative position of the different elements, affects the perception of the qualities of the objects, for example the size.

Principle of proximity: for the brain the elements tend to be grouped with those that are at a shorter distance.

Similarity principle: elements that are similar tend to be grouped and seen as the same element, as sets that can be clearly separated from the rest.

Principle of continuity: the details that maintain a pattern or direction tend to be grouped together, as part of a model.

ACTIVITY TWO: graphic design

Descriptive geometry has been responsible for the graphic representation on two-dimensional surfaces, to solve the problems of space in which points, lines and planes intervene. Through projections, move the points of a figure to a surface. Such a branch of geometry summarizes the theory of technical drawing.

The dimension of an object is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates necessary to specify any point on it. Thus, a line has one dimension because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point in it. A surface, such as a plane or the surface of a cylinder or a sphere, has two dimensions, because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on it. The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is three-dimensional because three coordinates are necessary to locate a point within these spaces.

The dihedral system is a method of geometric representation of the elements of three-dimensional space on a plane, that is, the reduction of the three dimensions of space to the two dimensions of the plane, using an orthogonal projection on two planes that are cut perpendicularly.

Graphic projection is the drawing technique used to represent an object on a surface. The graphic projection of an object is considered as the figure obtained on the surface by means of straight beams, called projecting lines, which, starting from a point, called a focus, transfer the details of the object to the surface on which they affect.

Reflection is the change of direction of a wave, which, when in contact with the separation surface between two changing media, returns to the point where it originated. Common examples are the reflection of light, sound and waves in water. Reflection occurs when the rays of light that hit a surface collide on it, deviate and return to the medium that came out at an angle equal to that of the incident light.

A ruled surface is generated by a line, called a generatrix, when moving on a curve or several, called guidelines.

We see how reflection occurs both in sound, light and water, and the projection is more related to conceptual and image elements. In astrological terms, reflection refers to the lunar and the projection to the solar.

  • Analyze the importance of reflection and projection in human design, and its difference with generation and manifestation.

ACTIVITY THREE: visual design

Visual Design is a professional design denomination that analyzes and transforms data into visual structures through the knowledge of perceptual (vision science) and cognitive (mind science) processes, the recognition of socio-cultural contexts for planning in the devices and supports of the image, in order to generate information systems that interacted with the community and its referents of meaning, through s of the communicative processes.

The visual elements constitute what we generally call forma, it is not a form that is seen but a figure of shape, size, color and texture. The way in which a form is created, constructed and organized, is directed by a certain structure, which includes the elements of relationship. The figures appear on a background: the image plane.

Creative visualization is the cognitive process of generating, by the way, visual mental images, with eyes open or closed, simulating or recreating visual perception, in order to maintain, inspect and transform those images by changing their associated emotions or feelings accordingly. According to the computational theory of images, which derives from experimental psychology, the creative visualization process comprises four stages:

1. Generation of images . This involves generating mental images, from memory, from fantasy, or a combination of both.

2. Image Maintenance . It implies the preservation or intentional maintenance of the images, without this the mental image is subjected to rapid decay, and does not resist long enough to advance to the next stages.

3. Image Inspection . At this stage, once generated and maintained, the mental image is inspected and explored, elaborated in detail, and interpreted in relation to the participant. This frequently involves an exploration process, whereby the participant directs his attention through and around an image, simulating changes in the perspective with which it is perceived.

4. Image Transformation . At this stage, the participant transforms, modifies, or alters the content of the generated mental image, so that it substitutes images that cause negative feelings, which are indicators of suffering and exacerbate psychological pain, or that reaffirm disability or weakness, for those that provoke a positive emotion, who are insinuating autonomy, ability to cope with things, and a greater degree of mental fitness and physical ability.

  • Visualize your design, the distribution of shapes and colors in your structure.

THE FLOWER OF LIFE: the gems of infinity.

Sacred geometry is the morphogenic structure that is behind reality itself, and constitutes the support of mathematics. Sacred geometry is a language; the language of everything that has been created. Everything that has been created, or currently exists, is included in the model of the flower of life. Nothing exists in the universe, and nothing could exist, which is not manifested in this figure. In it are all languages, all physical laws, all biological forms of life, and even each of us as individual elements.

The spirit projects itself as far as possible in the six directions - up and down, forward and backward, left and right - (Figure 9-1). Such movement is based on three axes marked with x, y, z. The next step is to join the lines so that they first form a square (figure 9-2), then a pyramid (figure 9-3) and, finally, extending down the lines of the pyramid, an octahedron is formed (figure 9- 4). Now the spirit has the reality of an octahedron. Even if it was a mental figure, movement is already possible since the perimeters have been established.

The fruit of life is a very special figure, very sacred. Clearly express the reasons for creation. Thirteen information systems start from this figure; that describe in detail each aspect of our reality, everything we can think, see, feel, taste, smell, etc., until we reach the current atomic structure. These thirteen information systems can be achieved by combining the feminine geometric energy with the masculine one. When the masculine and the feminine combine, something new is manifested. So one of the simplest and most obvious ways to add masculine energy, through straight lines, is to unite all the centers of the spheres of the fruit of life. In doing so you will have drawn the figure known as the Metatron cube, it contains the three-dimensional replica of four of the five Platonic solids: cube, tetrahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron.

The right eye of Horus refers to the mental formation of the apprentice, while the left eye focuses on the emotional aspect.

A fractal is a geometric object whose basic structure, fragmented or apparently irregular, is repeated at different scales.1 The term was proposed by the mathematician Benoît Mandelbrot in 1975 and derives from the Latin fractus, which means broken or fractured. Many natural structures are fractal-like.

  • Prepare a design plan to create each of the sense organs.


Shamballa asked that groups in preparation for learning be formed with those who were in the process of building the rainbow, a bridge between the Triad and personality, and in which those who are training demonstrate signs of the sense of synthesis. In the already initiated Aquarian era, the neophyte is taught to see the whole picture, to think in broader terms, to get out of normal separatist consciousness and to penetrate the wide sphere of perception that does not "see any difference." The result of the mystical and mentalistic method is the fusion of the vertical path of life with the horizontal path of service, and Shamballa demands that this fusion condition the attempt that is now being carried out to train those who together will seek Learning, together they will cross the Portal to the Path, and together they will be presented as a “unit of Light” to the Rector One. This sense of synthesis that must be demonstrated more and more when the learning is received in group form can only be achieved by those who have eliminated the gap between the concrete mind and abstract mind through practical mind. The key to the esoteric work that Shamballa demanded is found in the development of the Art of Visualization. Through visualization, three expressions of human consciousness could be achieved:

1. The rainbow could be constructed and the brightness of the Triad could also be clearly perceived. This constituted the new vision - effect of the development of the sense of vision. Prospective

2. Groups, large totalities and major syntheses could be visualized, which led to a definite expansion of consciousness. Thus the sense of synthesis developed. Insight.

3. The development of the sense of vision and synthesis, through visualization, led to the sense of proportion. Planning.

Through this training, all creative art was encouraged, and new art in all sectors of creativity developed rapidly as we were trained in technical drawing and graphic design. This is how design emerged as a process of visual creation with a purpose, which unlike painting and sculpture that are the realization of personal dreams and visions of an artist, design covers practical demands.


Bob Frisell The fourth dimension

Wucius Wong Fundamentals of bi and three-dimensional design.

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